We live in pakistan where ticks effect cattles especially in months of May,June,July and august also our neighbours like India,China  bear huge economic losses because of ticks attack on domestic and farm cattles.So, Its seasonal need to write about ticks.

All ticks are parasitic feeder on blood.All ticks have incomplete metamorphosis.  

Ticks are grouped in three families of which two have genera that attack on domestic animals

 Family Argasidae

Two genera of this family attack on cattle

genus Ornithodoros

genus Otobius

Family Ixodide

seven genera of this family attack on cattles

genus Amblyomma

genus Dermacentor

genus haemaphysalis

genus hyalomma

genus Ixodes

genus margaropus

genus rhipicephalus.

All this is about classification of ticks.Next post will be on the species found in pakistan,india and china .How to prevent or traet these ticks to avoid loses?.Sorry from other readers of USA,Australia,UK as they have to wait a little for the genera of that areas

Infectious infertility.

Follwing infections cause infertility in dairy cows


Genital Campylobacteriasis


It is caused by bacterium  named as         Brucella abortus .The infection results in abortion of infected cow.

Brucellosis spread through viginal discharge of an infected cow or from aborted fetus.Breeding bulls which are infected can transmit disease to cows throug semens during breeding.


There is no treatment for the disease and infected animals should be slaughter to avoid losses

Genital Campylobacteriosis

This disease is caused by a bacterium Campylobacter fetus.It is a venereal disease characterised by early embryonic death,infertility and occasionally abortion.The infection is transmitted mainly by natural service but may also be caused by AI using infected semen.In cows infection spread to uterus and oviduct causing endometritis.


Strepromycin can be used for the treatment of infection.Artificial insemination is,the best way to avoid infection.


Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira.The infection results in milk reduction,abortion and poor fertility


Cows can be easily treated with a course of antibiotics


Trichomoniasis is a venereal diaease of cattle caused by a motile protozoa Tritrichomona foetus

Protozoa effect reproductive system of both bull and cow.A single infected bull can transmit infection in many cows.The infection results infertility or early embryonic death.

Trichomoniasis is transmitted from an infected bull to the cows reproductive tract during breeding.It than migrates to the uterus .

The infected cows are infetile or sometimes early embronic death may occur.This result in reduce production and huge economic loss for farmer.


An infected cow may show viginal discharge but in many cases ,there are no appearent symptoms.Go for the lab test if number of cows in the herd are going to be infertile or showing embronic death.


There is no treatment for the disease .To avoid losses the infected bull and cows shoud be slaughter.


Infertility is the inability of an organism to reproduce by natural means.

It is caused by

.Poor cow nutrition

.Genetics of an organism



The infertility is mainly caused due to deficiency of some minerals and vitamins in the cow food.


Calcium,Phosphorus,Magnesium, Potassium,Sulphur,Cobalt,Copper,Iodine,Sodium , Selenium and Zinc are micro nutrients of animal food.Zinc and Cobalt dont cause problems in fertility of cow.

The deficiency of other minerals like Calcium,Phosphorus,Selenium,Zinc, Magnicium and copper can cause infertility


The deficiency of vitamin E cause retained placenta and a cow with deficiency of vitamin D does not show heat symptoms


  • The luteal phase is an earlier phase of estrous cycle.It begins with the formation of corpus luteum and ends in either pregnancy or luteolysis
  • Luteolysis is structural and functional degradation of corpus luteum.It takes place at the end of luteal phase of estrus cycle in the absence of pregnancy.
  • In domestic animals prostaglandin(Cloprostenol )is used for luteolysis.Luteolysis cause a decrease in progestirone level promoting an increase in follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) secretion which will start the development of new follicles on the ovary to start a new reproductive cycle.
  • Alternatively during a pregnancy,carpus luteum remains in the ovary releasing progestirone which will maintain a state of quiescence and close cervix until the delivery of fetus.


The Estrous cycle of cow ranges 17-24 days in duration.

Each cycle consists of a long luteal phase 1-17th day.In luteal phase the cycle is under the influence of progestiron harmone.

After that there is a  shorter folicular phase.In this phase cycle is under the influence of Estrogen harmone.

Next is the Estrous phase.In this phase the secretion of Estrogen reaches to maximum.The  time duration of this phase is 6-24 hours.During this time animal shows heat symptoms.Ovulation occour between 24th-32nd hour of onset of Estrous.The average life of egg is 48 hours after ovulation.So one must weight for 48 hours after heat symptoms.

The best time for insemination is 48th-60th hour after the onset of heat symptoms.